Hans Goldfreund - Auschwitz Concentration Camp
The origin of the surname Goldfreund: Goldfreund literally means "friend of gold" or "golden friend" in German. Goldfreund is linked to the popular female personal name Golda and to the precious metal gold. Golda became a widespread Jewish female personal name from which some family names were developed.
Born: 23rd February 1896, Berlin, Germany.
Married: I don't think so?
Occupation: - Jeweller, Kurfürstendamm 75, Berlin, Germany
Died: 28th June 1943, Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Poland
----- Else Goldfreund
, Margarete Grete Goldfreund
, Paula Goldfreund Wilk
, Erna Goldfreund
----- Adolf Goldfreund: 1854, 3rd June - Breslau, Silesia, Poland? - 1902, 5th April - Berlin, Germany
----- Emma Jablonsky: 1854, 9th December - Breslau, Silesia, Poland? - 1915, 25th April - Berlin, Germany
----- Simon Julius Goldfreund: Abt 1817 - Breslau, Silesia, Poland - 1894, 4th August - Berlin, Germany
----- Marianne Ginsberg: Abt. 1818 - Breslau, Silesia, Poland - 1900, 19th January - Berlin, Germany
-------------- Children: Adolf Goldfreund | Isidor Goldfreund
| Emilie Goldfreund Hersch
Piecing Together Hans Goldfreund's Life
In WW1 Hans Goldfreund seems to have served as a German Soldier* with Leib Grenadier Regiment "King Friedrich Wilhelm III." (1st Brandenburg) No. 8. The Body Guard Grenadiers Regiment "King Friedrich Wilhelm III." (1. Brandenburg) no. 8 was an infantry joined to the Prussian army.
The regiment mobilized when the WW1 broke out on August 2, 1914. As part of the 9th Infantry Brigade, the regiment marched into neutral Belgium and fought at Tirlemont. Thereafter it took part at the Battle of Mons, Le Cateau, Marne and Aisne. After the autumn 1915 battle in Champagne, the regiment was deployed in front of Verdun at the end of February 1916 and took part in the Battle of the Somme in July / August 1916.
- 1916 - 29 August, 2 October & 2 October Hans Goldfreund is reported in the "Deutsche Berlusslichten" as being lightly wounded and missing.
Hans Goldfreund returned to Berlin where his sisters are living and runs a Jewellery shop "Goldfreund & Rosenbaum" in Charlottenburg, Kurfürstendamm.
World War II and Deportation
- 1925 - Jewellery Shop: Hans Goldfreund is running Jewellery Shop "Goldfreund & Rosenbaum" in Charlottenburg, Kurfürstendamm 75 Erdg. T. Sieinpl. 305.
- 1933 January - Hitler was appointed Chancellor and Head of the German government.
- 1935 - 1936 Residence: Chlb 2, Uhlandstr. 24, Schöneberg, Berlin
- 1936 - Goldschmidt: Hans Goldfreund is running a Goldschmidt at Courbierestr. 16, Berlin
1935 -1936: Jews liberties are restricted including losing their German citizenship, right to vote, are banned from parks and restaurants and swimming pools, are no longer allowed electrical/optical equipment, bicycles, typewriters or records and their passports to travel abroad are restricted.
- 1938 - Goldschmidt & Residence: Kleiststr 31, Schöneberg, Berlin. This may have been Hans Goldfreund's last known residence where he lived "freely". According to a 1938 Berlin telephone directory he was was still trading as Jeweller.
17 Aug 1938 - "Israel"/"Sara": a decree was passed in the German Reich which required Jews bearing first names of "non-Jewish" origin to adopt an additional name: "Israel" for men and "Sara" for women. This was displayed on all their birth certificates.
Moreover, special identity cards were issued to Jews and Jews' passports stamped with a red letter 'J'. Some Jews have their passports removed to prevent them leaving the country. Jews are excluded from cinema, theatre, concerts, exhibitions, beaches and holiday resorts.
9 and 10 November 1938 - “Kristallnacht” “Night of Broken Glass”: Nazis torched more than 1,400 synagogues, vandalized/destroyed over 7,500 Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed circa 400 Jews throughout Germany. In the following days, the Gestapo arrested around 30,000 Jewish men and detained them in concentration camps (Buchenwald, near Weimar; Dachau, near Munich; and Sachsenhausen, near Berlin). Hundreds of these detained Jews were murdered by the SS in the concentration camps.
12 November 1938 - The Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life: closes all Jewish-owned businesses.
- 1939 February 21 - The Surrender of Precious Metals and Stones in Jewish Ownership Decree: requires Jews to turn in gold, silver, diamonds, and other valuables to the state without compensation.
- 1939 September 1 - The start of World War II: when Germany invaded Poland, which led Britain and France to declare war on the Nazi state in retaliation.
- 1941, September 1: The Yellow Star of David: the Reich Minister of the Interior decreed that Jews over the age of 6, in the Greater German Reich, must wear a yellow Star of David on their outer clothing in public, at all times.
- 1943 February and March - The Rosenstraße Protests, Berlin
In 1943 some 7,000 Jewish citizens still remained in Berlin? At the end of February 1943, some 8,000 Jewish citizens of Berlin were detained for deportations by the SS and the Gestapo. This included some 2,000 Jews, mostly men, who were partners in mixed marriages which had until then been tolerated and spared from persecution. Separated from the rest of the prisoners, they were taken to the building which had formerly housed the Jewish Welfare Administration in Rosenstraße 2-4. The women gathered in front of the building with their children on the evening of 27 February 1943 and demanded to speak with their loved ones.
There followed a later call for the release of their family members from the so-called "Factory Action", the euphemism used to denote the final round-up of Berlin's Jews in 1943. For a week, some 600 women engaged in daily protests. On 6 March 1943, the first prisoners were released, with the remaining detainees released in the following days. In the Third Reich, The Rosenstraße Protest is apparently the only mass public demonstration by Germans against the deportation of Jews.
- 1943 until June - Residence: : Fom Yadvashem.org, Hans Goldfreund was living in Charlottenburg, Kantstr. 44-45 and was a subtenant of Loewe. This address is listed as his address before deportation.
His deportation records state he was a subtenant of Loewe. Was Hans in hiding there or living there in open? It does not apprear that Loewe were taken at the same time as Hans - search surname "Loewe". I am trying to find out information about the Loewes of Kantstr. 44-45, Berlin. Sadly, additional Jewish victims where deported from Kantstr. 44-45: the Gumpert family and their aunt Mirjam Levy (the aunt 14.11.1941 to Minsk Ghetto, Mother and daughter 12.3.1943 to Auschwitz, Father was deported in 1943 to Auschwitz, transferred to Dachau in 28.1.1945, then in April 1945 was forced on the TODESMARSCH and freed on 29.4.1945.
- 1943 June 28: Osttransport 39 / Transport 39*** from Berlin to Auschwitz Concentration / Extermination Camp, Poland
- Details of Deportation Transport 39*
Deportation Transport 39***: The deportees included in the late transports from Berlin to Auschwitz were often Jewish spouses in so-called “mixed marriages” that were suspected of violating the anti-Jewish regulations. Another group of deportees was Jews who lived illegally in hiding and were caught, often due to a denunciation of German civilians or Jewish collaborators. Occasionally, Jewish prisoners were transferred from civilian prisons and put on a transport, as was the case of the two of the deportees on this transports who were taken out of the Zuchthaus Brandenburg prison. Prior to their deportation, the deportees were held at the Gestapo interment facility at Iranische Strasse or at Grosse Hamburger-Strasse.
June 1943 - The city of Berlin was declared officially Judenfrei ("Free of Jews").
- Details of Transport*: Transport 39 from Berlin, Germany to Auschwitz Birkenau, Extermination Camp, Poland
- No. of deportees**: Min 314 | Max 346
- Names of deportees: From Yadvashem: Transport 39, Names of deportees
- Date of Arrival***: 29/06/1943
- Murdered: Haven't been able to find exact date of murder
- Place of death: Auschwitz Concentration / Extermination Camp, Poland
- Age of death: circa 47
* : Leib Grenadier Regiment Nr 8
& Germany, World War I Casualty Lists, 1914-1919: 1916 Deutsche Berlusslichten: Verlust - Liste Nr 1127 (29 Aug 1916) | Liste Nr 1185 (02 Okt 1916) & Liste Nr 1233 (28 Okt 1916)
** : Yadvashem.org name record
*** : Transport 39 Deportation list from Yadvashem.org
MURDER - IN ORDER OF HORRENDEOUS FATE KNOWN:
1941 November 1 - Margarete Goldfreund - Chelmno Extermination Camp
Margarete Goldfreund (also know as Grete Goldfreund)
- Born: 1st July 1887 in Berlin / - / Germany
- Name on Birth Certificate: Lucie Margarethe Goldfreund
- Resident of: BERLIN - MITTE - FRIEDRICHSTR. 129 (circa 1941)
- Occupation: Verkäuferin - shop assistant?
- 1941 November 1: Osttransport 4 / Transport 4* from Berlin to Litzmannstadt (Lodz), Ghetto, arriving November 2, 1941
- Details of Deportation Transport 4*:
Transport 4 was the fourth transport from Berlin (Welle IV – “Wave IV”), which departed from Grunewald station, Berlin, out of over 60 transports to the East (Osttransporte) which together took more than 35,000 Jews from Berlin to ghettos and extermination sites in Eastern Europe. The files of the Department for Jewish affairs at the Berlin Gestapo were burned during the last weeks of the war and there are no name lists available for the first eight transports from Berlin to the East, including the first four transports to Lodz. After the war, copies of Gestapo files and index cards were discovered in the archive of the Oberfinanzpräsident Berlin-Brandenburg which made it possible to determine the majority of the names of the deportees, but it is still difficult to ascertain their exact number.
- No. of deportees** : Min 1,033 | Max 1,079
- Names of deportees: From Yadvashem: Transport 4, Names of deportees
- Date of Arrival* : 02nd November 1941 (Lodz Ghetto)
- Wartime Address*** : 53, FLAT 6 SULZFELDER STRASSE / Brzezinska, Lodz, Ghetto, (today Wojska Polskiego Street) living with 9 others? Brzezinska street started at Plac Koscielny at Lagiewnicka Street, and ended at the eastern border of the ghetto. Several important institutions were located in the neighborhood of St. Mary's Assumptions Church and Brzezinska street, Lodz Ghetto. lodz-ghetto.com
- 1942 May 9: Litzmannstadt Lodz Ghetto to Kulmhof (Chelmno), Extermination Camp, Poland
- Murdered: 09th May 1942
- Place of death: Kulmhof (Chelmno), Extermination Camp, Poland
- Age of death: 54
* : Transport 4 Deportation list from Yadvashem.org
** : Bundesarchiv.de Gedenkbuch chronology of deporations
*** : List of residents at 53, FLAT 6 SULZFELDER STRASSE from Yadvashem.org
Yadvashem.org name record
Yadvashem.org name record
Yadvashem.org name record
1943 July 23 - Paula Goldfreund Wilk- Sobibor Extermination Camp
Paula Goldfreund (married name Paula Wilk)
1st Marriage: Diamitr [SURNAME UNKNOWN] - Berlin, Germany
- Born: 3rd Jan 1892 in Berlin / - / Germany
- Name on Birth Certificate: Paula Goldfreund
- Resident of: 1932 = Steglitz, Hardenbergstr 6, Berlin
- Occupation: ?
2nd Marriage: Rafaël Wilk - Abt 1942 - Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Daughter: Ingeborg. Born 26 Feb 1916 in Berlin, Germany | SURVIVED
----- 1938*: Ingeborg (at the age of 22) is reported as being stateless, destitute and a resident of Bulgaria
----- 1939, 18th May: Has sailed on the S.S "Nicolas" Burgos and entered illegally Isdud, Palestine
----- 1939, 24th May: Released By Order Of The High Commissioner, Haifa (HURRAH!)
----- Restitution Cases Against The Deutsche Reich**: 1955 onwards - Ingeborg raises several restitution cases against The Deutsche Reich regarding her Mother (Paula Goldfreund), Aunts (Margarete and Else) and Uncle (Hans Goldfreund).
- Place during the War: Amsterdam, Meerhuizenpl 136, II, The Netherlands
----- Rafaël Wilk: Born: 18 May 1886 - Sanok, Podkarpackie, Poland | Murdered: 28 Jan 1944 - Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Poland | Age of Death: 58
----- Son of Rafaël Wilk and Ester Hendel Pawliger: Bernard Wilk : Born: 11 Jun 1914 - Antwerpen, Belgium | Murdered: 31 Mar 1944 - Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Poland | Age of Death: 30
----- Wife of Bernard Wilk: Margaretha Wilk nee van Ments: Born: 2 May 1919 - Den Haag, Netherlands | Murdered: 3 Sep 1943 - Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Poland | Age of Death: 56
* : Palestine, Illegal Immigration from German-Occupied Europe, 1938-1945 (USHMM): Document Number: D/329/39/CHU
1943 September 28 - Else Goldfreund - Auschwitz Concentration Camp
- Born: 17th October 1885 in Berlin / - / Germany
- Name on Birth Certificate: Henriette Else Goldfreund
- Resident of: Berlin - Tempelhof, Schulenburgring 130 (1943)
- Occupation: Schneiderin - Seamstress / Dressmaker / Tailoress
1943 June - The city of Berlin was declared officially Judenfrei, "Free of Jews".
- 1943 September 28: Osttransport 43 / Transport 43 from Berlin to Auschwitz Concentration / Extermination Camp, Poland
- Details of Deportation Transport 43*:
The deportees of Transport 43** included in the later transports from Berlin to Auschwitz were often Jewish spouses in so-called “mixed marriages” who were suspected of violating the anti-Jewish regulations. Another group of deportees consisted of Jews who lived illegally in hiding and were caught, often due to their denunciation by German civilians or Jewish collaborators. Occasionally, Jewish prisoners were transferred from civilian prisons and put on such a transport. Prior to their deportation, the deportees were held at one of the Gestapo interment facilities on Iranische Strasse or Grosse Hamburger-Strasse.
- No. of deportees**: Min 73 | Max 81
- Names of deportees: From Yadvashem: Transport 43, Names of deportees
- Date of Arrival**: 01/10/1943
- Murdered: Haven't been able to find out
- Place of death: Auschwitz Concentration / Extermination Camp, Poland
- Age of death: circa 57
Else Goldfreund's siblings' deportations: Grete on Osttransport 4 (1941 November 1st, Berlin), Hans Goldfreund on Osttransport 39 (1943 June 28th, Berlin) and Paula Goldfreund Wilk on 20 1943 July 20, Netherlands and so Else was the last of her siblings to be deported by the Nazis to her death.
Though Berlin was declared Judenfrei, "Free of Jews", in June 1943 more than 18 deportations took place from Berlin. The last reported deportation from Berlin commenced January 5 1945, Transport 61 / Osttransport 61, even though Germany was facing military defeat. Transport 61 included 21 recorded deportees who were sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp, Sachsenhausen and Bergen Belsen concentration camp. These deportees may have included Jewish spouses in so-called “mixed marriages” who lost their protection due to divorce or death of the non-Jewish spouse, or who were suspected of violating the anti-Jewish regulations. Another group of deportees consisted of Jews who lived illegally in hiding and were caught, often due to their denunciation by German civilians or Jewish collaborators. The bundesarchiv.de Gedenkbuch records a tranport from Berlin as late as 27 March 1945 of 42 deportees to Theresienstadt - devastating as The Third Reich surrendered on 8 May 1945.
Osttransport 1 from Berlin's Grunewald station to Lodz Ghetto, Poland is recorded as departing in 1941 on 18th of October transporting 1,013 deportees. Berlin's Osttransporte deported more than 35,000 Berlin Jews to ghettos and extermination sites throughout Eastern Europe. For a list of deportations which took place throughout Germany see yadvashem.org's Deportation Database.
* : Yadvashem.org name record
** : Transport 43 Deportation list from Yadvashem.org
THE ONLY KNOWN SURVIVOR OF HANS GOLDFREUND'S SISTERS / SIBLINGS
- Born: 12 October 1894 in Berlin / - / Germany
- Name on Birth Certificate: Erna Goldfreund
- Resident 1931-1932: Berlin- Wilmersdorf, Babelsberger Str. 9
- Resident / Modesalon 1934: Berlin - Kurfürstendamm 75
- Occupation: Modesalon owner
- Married: Walter Schwarz. Pre-1939
- Fled Germany*: Circa 1939 - on 5 Dec 1939 there is a UK WW2 Internee Record for Erna - named Erna Sara Schwarz a houswife living at 23 Brook Lodge, Hendon, NW4, which awards her exemption until further order from internment, and from special restrictions and allowed to stay in the UK (HURRAH!).
- Restitution Case Against The Deutsche Reich**: 1959 - for stolen Jewellery belonging to Margarete Goldfreund (her sister).
- Date of death: 17 April 1986
- Place of death: 35 Troy Court, Kensington South, London, England.
Gutted when I discovered this as I was studying in London at UCL at the time and Mummy came down to visit. Mummy would have so wished to see Erna Goldfreund.
- Age of death: 92
* : The National Archives; Kew, London, England; HO 396 WW2 Internees (Aliens) Index Cards 1939-1947; Reference Number: HO 396/239
** : Restitution Cases
- Search "Goldfreund"
London, England, Electoral Registers
Hans Goldfreund's Cousins
From His Unkle Isidor Goldfreund (1822 - 1892, Berlin)
- Isidor Goldfreund (Brother of Adolf Goldfreund, Hans' Father) and Wife:
----- Isidor Goldfreund: 1822, 25 July - Friedeberg (in the Neumark) / Breslau (Poland) - 1892, 10 Feb - Berlin, Germany, buried in the Jewish cemetery in Berlin-Weißensee (burial number 10844). Isidor Goldfreund last lived at Friedrichstrasse 239 in Berlin-Mitte and died there. His occupation was meat merchant? The registration for the funeral was made by Mr. Salomon Neumann.
----- Luise Lotte Sorsky: 1845, 26 Jan - Gleiwitz (or Schleiwitz), Slaskie, Poland - 1901, 12 Nov - Berlin, Germany. She is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Berlin-Weißensee (burial number 10844) beside her husband Isidor Goldfreund. Louise Goldfreund last lived at Lessingstrasse 16 and died there. She was widowed.
----- 1884 - 1886 they were living Potsdamer Strasse 107a, Berlin
- Hans Goldfreund's cousins (children of Isidor Goldfreund) who died through illness?
----- Gertrude Goldfreund: Born: 1876, 29 Jan - Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany | Died: 1880, 7 June - Berlin, Germany | Age of Death: 4. Not known at Berlin-Weißensee cemetery.
----- Arthur Ludwig Goldfreund: Born: 1878, 7 March - Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany | Died: 1886, 28 March - Berlin, Germany | Age of Death: 8. He is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Berlin-Weißensee (burial number 4833)
----- Carl Georg Goldfreund: Born: 1884, 28 July - Berlin, Germany | Died: 1884, 07 August - Berlin, Germany | Age of Death: 9 days. He is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Berlin-Weißensee (burial number 3302)
----- Emilie Lisbeth Goldfreund: Born: 1869, 15 Dec - Breslau, Dolnoslaskie, Poland | Died: 1942, 2 Feb - Berlin, Berlin, Germany | Age of Death: 73
----- Paula Goldfreund: Born: 1872, 16 Oct - Brandenburg, Berlin, Germany | Died: ?.
- She doesn't seem to have been buried in Berlin
- Is not listed on https://www.bundesarchiv.de/gedenkbuch/
- Did she die soon after birth or was she murdered by the Nazis or did she manage to escape (with change of name)?
- I think she may have died as a child as did her siblings Gertrude, Arthur and Carl?
Please do contact me via my linkedin if you have information regarding Paula Goldfreund as I can not find information if she survived WWII. I feel haunted that her fate is not recorded herein.
- Hans Goldfreund's cousins (children of Isidor Goldfreund) who were murdered in concentration camps
----- Anna Else Goldfreund: Born: 10 Feb 1882 - Berlin, Germany | Deportation: 2 Mar 1943 - Auschwitz Concentration Camp | Age of Death: 61
---------- Ernst Berliner (Husband of Anna Else Goldfreund?): Born: 19 May 1881 - Haynau, Distrikt Liegnitz, Niederschlesien, Poland | Murdered: 30 Juni 1938 - Buchenwald Concentration Camp, Germany | Age of Death: 57
- Possible SURVIVORS of Hans Goldfreund's cousins (children of Isidor Goldfreund)?
Ernst Goldfreund: Born: 1879, 27 Sep - Berlin, Germany | Died: 1956, 30 Jan - Düsseldorf, Germany | Age: 77
----- 1916, 3 March, Berlin, Germany: wrote an obituary for Boelcke, Oswald 1891-1916 (a German flying ace of WW1 who was a German air combat hero) for the Vossische Zeitung, Berlin. For copyright reasons, this document cannot be viewed online. However, the documents can be made available for scientific use in the ZBW premises. Source: Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
----- 1920: Resident of Leipzig, Germany, Anger Crottendorf, Cichorinsstr. 2a. Occupation: Zeitschriften Bertr. (writer ? for Magazines / Newspapers)
----- 1933: Ernst Goldfreund took over / became provisional management of ?, who had been working before 1933, at The "Leipziger Tagesblatt" and was a representative of the Ullstein Verlag (Publisher's), Leipzig. Source: Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
----- ?: President of Leipzig Community. Source: The Jewish Telegraphic Agency, New York
----- 1954?: Fled to West Germany, Düsseldorf. Source: The Jewish Telegraphic Agency, New York and Leipziger Juden und die DDR: Eine Existenzerfahrung im Kalten Krieg
Hans Goldfreund's Cousins
From His Tante Emilie Goldfreund (Abt 1848 - 1911, Berlin)
- Emilie Goldfreund (Sister of Adolf Goldfreund, Hans' Father) and Husband:
----- Emilie Goldfreund (Sister of Adolf Goldfreund, Hans' Father): Abt 1848, Austria? - 22 Jul 1911 (Berlin).
----- Isidor Hersch: Abt 1845, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia - 1930, 14 March, Berlin Germany
-------------- Occupation: ?
- Hans Goldfreund's cousins (children of Emilie Goldfreund), born in Berlin who died through illness?
----- Adolf Hersch: Born: 1873, 13 Nov | Died: 1888, 31 Jan
----- Jaeques Hersch: Born: 1877, 23 Jan | Died: 1889, 20 Nov
----- Joseph Hersch: Born: 1878, 16 Sept | Died: 1878, 4 Oct
- Possible SURVIVORS of Hans Goldfreund's cousins (children of Emilie Goldfreund)?
Elisbeth Hersch: Born: 1869, 5 April, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia | Died: 1951, April, Hampstead, London, England | Age: 82
----- 1897, 18 Feb - marries Heÿmann Raczkowskÿ (Born: abt. 1870 Labiau, East Prussia | Died: 1923, 16 Oct Berlin, Germany
-------------- Occupation: Businessman
----- 1939, 18 Dec - Living in UK (Hampstead, London?): Female Enemy Alien - exemption From Internment - refugee
----- Son: Kurt Raczkowsky: Born: 1898, 10 Nov, Berlin, Germany | Died: 1970, 29 Jan, Hollywood, Broward, Florida, USA
-------------- Occupation: Motor Mechanic / Driver
-------------- 1930 - 1938 - resident in Berlin, Germany
-------------- 1930 - 1938 - Marries Lilly [Surname]? Born: 1905, 16 May, Briesen, Brandenburg, Germany | Died: 1983, 29 Jan, Hollywood, Broward, Florida, USA
-------------- 1938, 5 March - arrives in Liverpool
-------------- 1939, October 16 - living (with Lilly) in Hampstead London (with his Mother?)
-------------- 1947, 28 Dec - (with Lilly) departs from Southampton, UK and arrives in New York, USA
-------------- 1951 - Resident in Michigan
Max Hersch: Born: 1875, 27 Dec, Berlin, Germany | Died: 1948, 8 June, Berlin, Germany | Age: 72
----- 1915 - 1919 - living in Berlin, Germany
----- 1918, 12 March - marriage to Antonie Helene Margarethe Maerdel. Born: 1879, 27 Feb, Berlin, Germany | Died: Bef. 1948?
----- Occupation: Auskunftei u Detektivinst. > Businessman / Fashion salon with his wife.
----- 1948 - residing Linienstrasse 53, Berlin, Germany (with his daughter, Gerda)
----- Daughter: Gerda Hersch: Born: Abt 1900, Berlin, Germany | Died: After 1948
-------------- Occupation: Laboratory assistant
-------------- 1948 - residing Linienstrasse 53, Berlin, Germany (with her father Max)
Key Historical Dates of The Holocaust
As soon as Hitler came to power he began the systematic persecution of Jews. The Nazis' established 2,000 anti-Jewish laws between 1933-1945. These were introduced slowly at first, so that the civilian population would not realise the extent of the Nazi party's anti-Semitism. See other examples of Anti-Semitic Legislation.
- 1933, 30 January - Adolf Hitler: was appointed Chancellor of Germany.
- 1933, March 22 - Dachau (Upper Bavaria, Southern Germany): Nazi officials established the first concentration camp, Dachau, which was intended for political prisoners.
- 1933, April 1 - Anti-Jewish Boycott: the Nazi leadership staged an economic boycott targeting Jewish-owned businesses and the offices of Jewish professionals.
- 1935, 15 September - The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze): were antisemitic and racist laws in Nazi Germany. The two laws were:
----- The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour - forbadding marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households.
----- The Reich Citizenship Law - which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens. The remainder were classed as state subjects without any citizenship rights.
- 1938, 17 Aug - "Israel" / "Sara" additional name for Jews: a decree in Nazi Germany required Jews bearing first names of "non-Jewish" origin to adopt an additional name: "Israel" for men and "Sara" for women. This was displayed on all their birth certificates.
- 1938, 9 - 10 November: “Kristallnacht” “Night of Broken Glass”: Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed circa 100 Jews. In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, some 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps.
- 1939, October: Aktion T4: Adolf Hitler signed a "Euthanasia Note", backdated to 1 September 1939, which authorised his physician Karl Brandt and Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler to implement a programme to select patients "deemed incurably sick" (disabled) and administer them a "mercy death" (Gnadentod).
- 1939, 11 September: German invasion of Poland. The UK and France declared war on Germany on the 13, 1939.
- 1939, 10 December?: Lodz Ghetto, Poland: The first known record of Lódz Ghetto? The liquidation of the ghetto began on June 23, 1944.
- 1940, April: Construction began Auschwitz Concentration Camp, Poland
- 1941, September 1: Yellow Star of David: the Reich Minister of the Interior decreed that Jews over the age of 6, in the Greater German Reich, must wear a yellow Star of David on their outer clothing in public, at all times.
- 1941, 7th December: Chelmno (Kulmhof) Extermination Camp, Poland: the first mass killings of Jews by gas, as part of the 'Final Solution'.
- 1942, January, Wannsee Conference (held near Berlin), The Final Solution (Endlosung der Judenfrage): The Final Solution was formulated and agreed by the Nazis. This was a plan devised for the genocide of Jews during World War II, which was not restricted to the European continent.
- 1942, 16 May (operational): Sobibor Extermination Camp, Poland: was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS as part of Operation Reinhard (the codename of the secretive Nazis plan to exterminate Poland's Jews in German-occupied Poland).
- Liberation of Camps (related to this sad document):
----- Lodz Ghetto - January 19, 1945 by the Russian Army
----- Chelmno Extermination Camp - January 20, 1945 by the Russian Army
----- Auschwitz Concentration Camp - 27 January, 1945 by the Russian Army
----- Buchenwald Concentration Camp - April 11, 1945 by the American Forces
----- Westerbork Transit Camp - April 12, 1945 by the Canadian Forces
----- Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp - 15 April 1945 by the British Forces (and my daddy) with American Forces)
----- Mauthausen Concentration Camp - May 5, 1945 by the American Forces
- 1945, 8 May: Nazi Germany's formal, unconditional surrender of its armed forces and the acceptance by The Allies of World War II.
Why Have I Created This Page for Hans Goldfreund And His Sisters?
My Mummy (Uschi Baingo) was German and born in Hamburg, 1925. She dated a lovely Jewish boyfriend, Lothar Besch and helped Lothar Besch survive WW2 in Berlin. She also helped Bubi (unknown surname) and his sister survive WW2. I think she may have met "Unkle" Hans via her Father, Erwin Baingo, as both had roots in Silesia? But they defintely lived near each other: Hans Goldfreund at Kleiststr 31 and Mummy, 28 Belziger str - both in Schöneberg, Berlin.
Before Mummy died, unbeknown to me, she asked her sister to find out what happened to her Jewish "Unkle" Hans Goldfreund who she was so fond of. She felt guilty she couldn't save him and was haunted by not knowing his fate. Mummy nor Daddy (Major Albert Ward MBE MM who fought as a Scottish Officer) talked about those awful times (Daddy was there (serving with The 15th (Scottish) Reconnaissance Regiment, RAC) just after the liberation of Belsen Concentration Camp).
Having visited Berlin in the past few years (I had lived there when I was very young, as Daddy was stationed there) I would like to organise a Stolperstein for Hans Goldfreund (and if I can afford it - for all his sisters). On behalf of my so missed Mummy, I took up the quest to find the information required to get Hans a Stolperstein and... found out that he had four (?) sisters. I have cried when I discovered their murders (and imagined their suffering). I have found enough information to get Hans Goldfreund a Stolpersteine in Berlin at Kleiststr 31, which is being respectively delayed due to awful COVID-19. Sadly additional Jewish victims have been commemorated with stolpersteine at Kleiststr 31: Betty Less (geb. Kamm), Betty Simon (geb. Less), Julius Less, Meyer Max Simon.
I so hope there are still relatives of this line of Goldfreund, alive. I am truly, very sorry if this page will upset relatives, which is not my intention. I wish only Hans Goldfreund's name and his sisters' names to be remembered, and honoured.
Today (09/11/2020) I cried with mixed joy and sadness. Renate, my incredibly lovely Stolperstein volunteer who is helping me with the Stolperstein for Hans, emailed me with the photos below. For a commemoration of Kristallnacht, today, she placed beautiful single roses (including totally unexpectedly, one for Hans Goldfreund) at the memorial of a former synagogue, in Berlin. I am so lucky to have been allocated to Renate and can't thank Renate enough for her comprehensive research and HUGE, warmth and sweetness.
Though this page was set up to try and get a Stolperstein for Hans Goldfreund, I do miss-heart-beats for all the victims of the concentration / extermination camps, to the: Jews, disabled, Romani (Gipsies), political dissidents, gay...
Please do contact me via my linkedin if you have any information or photographs you would like me to add the page.
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